[82] The term Hindu was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts, including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. "It's actually a Hindu religious symbol meaning `let good prevail. [73] The 'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous 'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar. : Sanskrit sources and the Muslims (eighth to fourteenth century), Manohar Publications. [167] In the 20th century, the sense of religious nationalism grew in India, states van der Veer, but only Muslim nationalism succeeded with the formation of the West and East Pakistan (later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh), as "an Islamic state" upon independence. Hindou(e) m/f. [95][96][97] Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. Introduction to Hinduism. [167] The successes of each side fed the fears of the other, leading to the growth of Hindu nationalism and Muslim nationalism in the Indian subcontinent. The distribution of Indian religions in British India (1909). In India, there are about 1.03 billion Hindus in 2020. It is the world's third-largest religion, with over 1.25 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The 2016 General Household Survey measured a further decline to 0.9%. [65] Inscriptional evidence from the 8th century onwards, in regions such as South India, suggests that medieval era India, at both elite and folk religious practices level, likely had a "shared religious culture",[65] and their collective identities were "multiple, layered and fuzzy". [101][104] A Hindu could: In the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" has been used in some places to denote persons professing any of these religions: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism or Sikhism. [75], Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term 'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". A bunch of Islamist radicals attacked a fellow Muslim for posting photos online of a Christmas party he had attended. Last 100 years [59][f], Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu identity history, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as Kabir, Anantadas, Eknath, Vidyapati, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks (Muslims), had formed during these centuries. [168][169][170] Religious riots and social trauma followed as millions of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs moved out of the newly created Islamic states and resettled into the Hindu-majority post-British India. [49], In 1995, Chief Justice P. B. Gajendragadkar was quoted in an Indian Supreme Court ruling:[99][100]. Last 300 years. Why the Hindu Right, Not Usually a Champion of Free Speech, Is Supporting Charlie Hebdo. As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". [102][103] Some Hindus go on pilgrimage to shared sites they consider spiritually significant, practice one or more forms of bhakti or puja, celebrate mythology and epics, major festivals, love and respect for guru and family, and other cultural traditions. As in India, Indonesian Hindus recognises four paths of spirituality, calling it Catur Marga. Hindu Eras and Epochs . [49] One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu. There was one French, however, who had converted to Hinduism in her pursuit for the Aryan culture and called Hitler, the greatest European and regarded him as an avatar of Lord Vishnu. ... and often critiques Hindu nationalism. Brahma is part of Hindu trinity, a deity with four The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region. White supremacy and Hindu nationalism have common roots going back to the 19th-century idea of the ‘Aryan race’. [51][57] Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars. [180] Pew Research projects that there will be 1.161 billion Hindus by 2020. [129], Julius Lipner states that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs is a modern phenomena, but one that is a convenient abstraction. Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press. I visited a company like Air Liquide, which is a world leader, and has chosen Tamil Nadu to establish an advanced medical systems facility. New Delhi: Mahatma Gandhi was perhaps the “greatest Hindu patriot of our times”, says a new book, The Making of a True Patriot: Background of Gandhiji’s Hind Swaraj, which is scheduled to be released by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh chief Mohan Bhagwat on 1 January. [166], The colonial era Hindu revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim separatism and Muslim nationalism. All Years The Vega rocket was carrying Spain’s first Earth observation satellite, called SEOSAT-Ingenio, and TARANIS, a French satellite designed to observe events in the upper atmosphere The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result of "communal conflict", and Hindu was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington. Slowly, the Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders. [51][52], The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Julius J. Lipner (2009), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge. Last 10 years Hindu American Foundation 910 Seventeenth Street NW, Suite 316A Washington, DC 20006 T: (202) 223-8222 | F: (202) 223-8004 info@hinduamerican.org 281, pages 224–230. The term Hindu there is ambivalent and could mean geographical region or religion. [80] The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme). Why white supremacists and Hindu nationalists are so alike. Jeaneane Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, Stella Kramrisch (1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. Both names of the country are rooted in Hinduism; Burma is the British colonial officials' phonetic equivalent for the first half of Brahma Desha, the ancient name of the region. Hindu Eras and Epochs . [122], Scholars state that Hindu, Buddhist and Jain identities are retrospectively-introduced modern constructions. [...] When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. For Muslim historian's record on major Hindu temple destruction campaigns, from 1193 to 1729 AD, see Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. Among the earliest terms to emerge were Seeks and their College (later spelled Sikhs by Charles Wilkins), Boudhism (later spelled Buddhism), and in the 9th volume of Asiatick Researches report on religions in India, the term Jainism received notice. [51][54] By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains,[51] but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. These sites became a target of their serial attacks in the centuries that followed. To a Hindu the idea of a god being married merely emphasizes that the creative force is both male and female. [145][146][147] There were occasional exceptions such as Akbar who stopped the persecution of Hindus,[147] and occasional severe persecution such as under Aurangzeb,[148][150][g] who destroyed temples, forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam and banned the celebration of Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali. Coverage of the temple in Lee market show idols of Hindu gods torn down and thrown out of the temple. "Thug" Origin . In Hindu belief it is the name of the sage Vasishtha's wife, who is identified with the star. [64], Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept of the Indian subcontinent as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set of religious ideas. [184], Over 3 million Hindus are found in Bali Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. These orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the 18th century. [64][65], At more than 1.2 billion,[66] Hindus are the world's third largest group after Christians and Muslims. The disappearance of Tithy Sarker, a Bangladeshi Hindu girl, has attracted sympathy from Indian social media users, who have called on their government to take up the matter with Dhaka. The French presence was always minor compared with the British presence, and the French in India were generally not a significant portion of the population. [94], Hindus subscribe to a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but have no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, nor a single founding prophet; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist. The text, by the early 19th century, began dividing Hindus into separate groups, for chronology studies of the various beliefs. An official release termed it a courtesy call. Their sacred texts are also the Vedas and the Upanishads. [51] These colonial studies, states Pennigton, "puzzled endlessly about the Hindus and intensely scrutinized them, but did not interrogate and avoided reporting the practices and religion of Mughal and Arabs in South Asia", and often relied on Muslim scholars to characterise Hindus. [78] Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that 'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially: 'Indian', 'indigenous, local', virtually 'native'. The attacks sparked panic … [181], In more ancient times, Hindu kingdoms arose and spread the religion and traditions across Southeast Asia, particularly Thailand, Nepal, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia,[182] Laos,[182] Philippines,[183] and what is now central Vietnam. After the temple and city were abandoned in 1431 some Buddhists - evicted lord Vishnu from the central shrine, smashed his image and installed Buddha. A Hindu temple was vandalised in Pakistan’s largest city Karachi after a Hindu boy was accused of making a blasphemous statement by the Muslim community of the city's Lyari district. [54] By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. [136] The tradition and temples likely existed well before the medieval era Hindu manuscripts appeared that describe them and the sacred geography. Yes it is the biggest Hindu temple on the planet and was dedicated to Vishnu. Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. In the highways which were once charming with anklets sound of beautiful women, [ˈhɪnduː , hɪnˈduː] noun. [176], According to Pew Research, there are over 1.2 billion Hindus worldwide (15% of world's population), with over 94.3% of them concentrated in India. To the Afghans south of the Hindu Kush anything connected with the USSR was a mystery, in spite of their shared border to the north. [58] Pollock presents many such examples and suggests an emerging Hindu political identity that was grounded in the Hindu religious text of Ramayana, one that has continued into the modern times, and suggests that this historic process began with the arrival of Islam in India. For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism are described in the early medieval era Puranas as pilgrimage sites around a theme. The waters of Tambraparni, which were once white with sandal paste, GJ Larson (2002), Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, Indiana University Press. This, states Fleming, is apparent given the sophistication of the architecture and the sacred sites along with the variance in the versions of the Puranic literature. View usage for: [88] In early colonial era Anglo-Hindu laws and British India court system, the term Hindu referred to people of all Indian religions as well as two non-Indian religions: Judaism and Zoroastrianism. All rights reserved. [63] Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. [98] A Hindu may, by his or her choice, draw upon ideas of other Indian or non-Indian religious thought as a resource, follow or evolve his or her personal beliefs, and still identify as a Hindu. Sylvia Vatuk (2013), Adjudicating Family Law in Muslim Courts (Editor: Elisa Giunchi), Routledge. [58][60] The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati, Kabir and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma (Hinduism) and contrasted it with Turaka dharma (Islam). Ann Kenney et al (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press. [58] Pollock notes that the Yadava king Ramacandra is described as a devotee of deity Shiva (Shaivism), yet his political achievements and temple construction sponsorship in Varanasi, far from his kingdom's location in the Deccan region, is described in the historical records in Vaishnavism terms of Rama, a deity Vishnu avatar. [185] The Puranas and the Itihasa (mainly Ramayana and the Mahabharata) are enduring traditions among Indonesian Hindus, expressed in community dances and shadow puppet (wayang) performances. in. Paul Dundas (2002), The Jains, 2nd Edition, Routledge. ), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict. [173] In contrast, opponents of Hindu nationalists remark that eliminating religious law from India poses a threat to the cultural identity and religious rights of Muslims, and people of Islamic faith have a constitutional right to Islamic shariah-based personal laws. You have reached your weekly free article limit. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. Zed's organization is part of an interfaith coalition that's recently called on Anheuser-Busch InBev to rename its Brahma beer line -- which shares its name with a Hindu … 11-year-old Vraj shows us around a Hindu temple, called a mandir, and tells us about the religious statues called murtis that Hindus keep in their temples and homes. [73] While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. [53] The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". 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